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22 manuels numériques max avec tous les contenus des manuels Belin Éducation nouveaux programmes de lycée, organisés en base de données, et des milliers de ressources. Lâoffensive du Printemps, Ã©galement connue sous les noms de bataille du Kaiser[a] (en allemand : Kaiserschlacht) ou offensive de Ludendorff, est un terme utilisÃ© pour faire rÃ©fÃ©rence aux sÃ©ries d'attaques allemandes sur le front occidental du 21 mars au 18 juillet 1918 durant la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale. Le 9 avril, l'offensive Michael fut arrÃªtÃ©e dans la rÃ©gion de Montdidier. The process of relief in place was poorly organized by the British First Army's command, and the Portuguese 1st Division had been withdrawn to the rear on 6 April, leaving the Portuguese 2nd Division to defend the entire sector alone. 2 nd Morlancourt. The German armies involved were—from north to south—the Seventeenth Army under Otto von Below, the Second Army under Georg von der Marwitz and the Eighteenth Army under Oskar von Hutier, with a Corps (Gruppe Gayl) from the Seventh Army supporting Hutier's attack. Anzac et Suvla. ; Occupation allemande de l'archipel d'Åland 7 mars â¦ Arras. German armies make gains along sections of the Western Front. "The March Offensive, 1918. A bord d'un corsaire allemand. Any capture of an important strategic objective, such as the Channel ports, or the vital railway junction of Amiens would have occurred more by chance than by design. The Allies had been badly hurt but not broken. Haig dut faire venir d'urgence des renforts du Royaume-Uni et le QG britannique dut retirer des divisions d'autres thÃ©Ã¢tres d'opÃ©rations. Operation Michael was a major German military offensive during the First World War that began the Spring Offensive on 21 March 1918. Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean (18 July 1918 - German Spring Offensive: With the war against Russia ended, Germany was free to send troops from the Eastern to the Western Front. Also known as the Ludendorff Offensive , after its commander Erich Ludendorff . The last funeral by the own troops took place in the time between 30.9. and 5.10.1918. The British abandoned the comparatively worthless territory they had captured at vast cost the previous year around Ypres, freeing several divisions to face the German attackers. Although Ludendorff was unsure whether the Americans would enter the war in strength, at a meeting of the Chiefs of Staff of the German armies on the Western Front on 11 November 1917, he decided to launch an offensive. Over 1,100,000 shells were fired in five hours.... Français : L'offensive allemande du printemps, mars-juillet 1919 Troisième bataille de l'Aisne. In theory, a British infantry division (with nine infantry battalions) deployed three battalions in the outpost zone, four battalions in the battle zone and two battalions in the rear zone.. The German Army had gained a temporary advantage in numbers as nearly 50 divisions had been freed by the Russian withdrawal from the war with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Offensive allemande du printemps 1918 JMO du 132 ème RI â 24 mars 1918. By 1110, the British line had collapsed. The stormtrooper units leading the advance carried supplies for only a few days, to avoid being overburdened, and relied on supplies delivered quickly from the rear. Offensive du Printemps (bataille du Kaiser), Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, 50Â° 00â² 10â³ nord, 2Â° 39â² 10â³ est, Bombardements de Paris et de sa banlieue durant la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale, Seconde bataille de la Marne, juillet 1918 - MÃ©morial de Dormans, Vie en Belgique durant la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale, Gouvernement gÃ©nÃ©ral impÃ©rial allemand de Belgique, ComitÃ© national de secours et dâalimentation, Section artistique de l'armÃ©e belge en campagne, RÃ©sistance intÃ©rieure belge (1914-1918), MÃ©moire de la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale en Belgique, EntrÃ©e des Ãtats-Unis dans la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale, confÃ©rence de Kreuznach des 17 et 18 mai 1917, confÃ©rence de Hombourg du 13 fÃ©vrier 1918, traitÃ© de Brest-Litovsk (Empires centraux-Ukraine), Portail des forces armÃ©es des Ãtats-Unis, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Offensive_du_Printemps&oldid=177607042, Bataille de la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale impliquant la France, Bataille de la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale impliquant l'Australie, Bataille de la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale impliquant la Nouvelle-ZÃ©lande, Bataille de la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale impliquant le Canada, Bataille de la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale impliquant le Royaume-Uni, Bataille de la PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale impliquant les Ãtats-Unis, Conflit militaire gÃ©olocalisable sans coordonnÃ©es paramÃ©trÃ©es, Article contenant un appel Ã traduction en anglais, CatÃ©gorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Portail:PremiÃ¨re Guerre mondiale/Articles liÃ©s, Portail:Ãpoque contemporaine/Articles liÃ©s, Portail:Histoire militaire/Articles liÃ©s, Portail:Forces armÃ©es des Ãtats-Unis/Articles liÃ©s, Portail:Empire britannique/Articles liÃ©s, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mÃªmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Lénine et les Bolcheviques ont toujours condamné la guerre de 1914 comme une guerre impérialiste où les intérêts des peuples sont totalement absents. Although German troops southwest of Rheims succeeded in crossing the River Marne, the French launched a major offensive of their own on the west side of the salient on 18 July, threatening to cut off the Germans in the salient. Les alliés nomment Foch à la tête des armées franco-britanniques, le 26 mars. The German Army made the deepest advances either side had made on the Western Front since 1914. For other uses, see, Churchill, "The World Crisis, Vol. i LA PREMIÈRE GUERRE MONDIALE EN ALSACE du front. The German offensive of March 1918 and the battles of retirement from late August to October 1918 again led to heavy losses. The Allies concentrated their main forces in the essential areas (the approaches to the Channel Ports and the rail junction of Amiens).  German manpower was exhausted. Ludendorff failed to follow the correct stormtrooper tactics, as described above. La révolution dOctobre 1917 est un succès. Les AlliÃ©s, en comparaison, ont concentrÃ© leurs forces principales sur des objectifs essentiels (les approches de ports de la Manche et la jonction ferroviaire d'Amiens).  German losses were again mainly from the difficult-to-replace assault divisions. ... mars 1918. Hit hard by the Feuerwalze bombardment and under the assault of eight German divisions, the Portuguese 2nd Division made a desperate defence, trying to hold their positions, which, however, were rapidly enveloped and overrun by the masses of German forces. Offensive allemande de mars 1918. Gneisenau was called off the following day.. In theory, the front line was an "outpost zone" (later renamed the "forward zone"), lightly held by snipers, patrols and machine-gun posts only. VI.1 LâHiver 1917-1918 â Lâoffensive Allemande 1.11.17-30.4.18: Official History: Anon. Within a few weeks, the danger of a German breakthrough had passed, though related fighting continued until July.  Again, the strategic results were disappointing for the Germans. Un de ses premiers actes de commandement fut d'employer une partie de ses maigres rÃ©serves pour boucher la dangereuse brÃ¨che sur la Somme. In July 1918, the Allies regained their numerical advantage with the arrival of American troops. The German breakthrough had occurred just to the north of the boundary between the French and British armies. Août 1918. Comment la reprise de la guerre de mouvement mène-t-elle à la fin du conflit ? Stay informed. Retour sur cette journée â¦ German troops, led by elite Stormtroopers, advanced behind a creeping barrage. 160 pp, Charles-Lavauzelle, 1938. In many sectors, the Germans, deprived of any surprise as their fuel-starved air force had lost air superiority to the Allies, advanced no further than the French Forward Zone, and nowhere did they break the French Battle (Second) Zone.. 1931: Download pdf. No clear objective was established before the start of the offensives and once the operations were underway, the targets of the attacks were constantly changed according to the battlefield (tactical) situation. Get the latest book reviews delivered bi-weekly. Plus de 160 000 Britanniques furent mis hors de combat. His lack of a coherent strategy to accompany the new tactics was expressed in a remark to one of his Army Group commanders, Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, in which he stated, "We chop a hole. Cinquante divisions allemandes avaient pu Ãªtre redÃ©ployÃ©es sur le front occidental aprÃ¨s la signature du traitÃ© de Brest-Litovsk avec la jeune Russie soviÃ©tique. It was scheduled for March-April 1918 and later dubbed the Spring Offensive. German 1918 spring offensives map (Geographx) The German spring offensive, which began on 21 March 1918, created the biggest crisis of the war for the Allies. In this sector, the British defences in depth were complete and fully manned, some of the opening German bombardment hit only empty positions and there was no fog to give cover to the attacking stormtroopers. However, victory was not achieved and the German armies were severely depleted, exhausted and in exposed positions. La possession de cette hauteur donnerait aux Allemands un avantage considÃ©rable. On 21 March 1918, the Germans launched a big offensive against the British Fifth Army and the right wing of the British Third Army. At Arras on 28 March, he launched a hastily prepared attack (Operation Mars) against the left wing of the British Third Army, to try to widen the breach in the Allied lines. However, these remained only secondary and weaker operations, subordinate to Michael. The Germans also failed to arm their forces with a mobile exploitation force, such as cavalry, to exploit gains quickly. The attack started on 9 April after a Feuerwalze. Ludendorff ended Georgette on 29 April. Get the Magazine. L'objectif de Ludendorff est d'empÃªcher les FranÃ§ais d'envoyer des renforts aux Britanniques qui se trouvent dans le nord de la France, oÃ¹ il prÃ©voit une nouvelle attaque. Ludendorff's dilemma was that the most important parts of the Allied line were also the most strongly held. Ils promirent que, dès leur accession au pouvoir, ils y mettraient fin. Mais la percÃ©e ne rÃ©ussit pas, parce que le gÃ©nÃ©ral Ludendorff, qui ne subissait pourtant que peu d'opposition sur sa gauche, continua Ã concentrer ses rÃ©serves devant Arras, oÃ¹ la rÃ©sistance britannique devint de plus en plus forte. Fresh British and Australian units were moved to the vital rail centre of Amiens and the defence began to stiffen. The ensuing Hundred Days Offensive resulted in the Germans losing all of the ground that they had taken in the Spring Offensive, the collapse of the Hindenburg Line, and the capitulation of Germany that November. The stormtrooper tactic was to attack and disrupt enemy headquarters, artillery units and supply depots in the rear areas, as well as to occupy territory rapidly. Localisation Second battle of Villers-Bretonneux . , The German army had concentrated many of its best troops into stormtrooper units, trained in infiltration tactics to infiltrate and bypass enemy front line units, leaving these strong points to be "mopped-up" by follow-up troops. for the failure to formulate sound and clear strategy. Le 21 mars 1918, l'Allemagne se lance dans une offensive majeure afin de forcer les défenses franco-britanniques. Le 9, Hutier a pris Ressons, le 10, RibÃ©court, et les troupes franÃ§aises ont dÃ» se replier derriÃ¨re l'Oise et le Matz ; mais la gauche tient bon, et les Allemands n'ont pu prendre Courcelles. They were left with an extensive 7 mi (11 km) front, without natural obstacles which might benefit the defence. ); then, destruction of their artillery; lastly an attack upon the enemy front-line infantry defences. English: Media relating to the German Spring Offensive of 1918 on the Western Front in Europe, collectively known in German as the Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle).  There were three phases: first, a brief bombardment on the enemy's command and communications (headquarters, telephone exchanges, etc. By mid-April 1918 most of the German divisions on the Eastern Front had been transferred to the â¦ En mars 1918, le commandement allemand rapatrie les troupes du front oriental et lance une grande offensive à lâOuest : câest le retour de la guerre de mouvement. The offensive would bear on the British Army which the German strategists considered to be exhausted after fighting four bloody and fruitless offensives in the course of 1917 at Arras, Messines, Passchendaele and Cambrai. Pour les Britanniques et les FranÃ§ais, c'est au mont Kemmel que la lutte est la plus rude. Dans un wagon-restaurant, près de la gare de Rethondes dans l'Oise aménagé en salle de réunion, l'amiral Wemyss, le maréchal Foch et le général Maxime Weygand mettront fin à quatre ans de guerre. message de Guillaume II au président Wilson. Ludendorff now postponed Hagen and launched the German Seventh, First and Third Armies in the Friedensturm (Peace Offensive) of 15 July, a renewed attempt to draw Allied reserves south from Flanders and to expand the salient created by Blücher–Yorck eastwards. Yet again, losses were much the same on each side: 137,000 Allied and 130,000 German casualties up to 6 June. Restait cependant à encaisser les dernières attaques allemandes, les plus terribles de la guerre. V.2 LâOffensive DâAvril 1917. ", Phifer, Mike. Ludendorff privately conceded that Germany could no longer win a war of attrition, yet he was not ready to give up the German gains in the West and East and was one of the main obstacles to the German government's attempts to reach a settlement with the Western Allies.. The Allies lost nearly 255,000 men (British, British Empire and French). Dans le village de Villers-Bretonneux, au printemps 1918, trois chars anglais rencontrent un char allemand lors de la bataille de Villers-Bretonneux. La Deuxième Grande Offensive Allemande Du Printemps, 1918. The sector was partly held by four depleted British divisions which were "resting" after their exertions earlier in the year. Le gÃ©nÃ©ral Ludendorff, chef d'Ã©tat-major gÃ©nÃ©ral adjoint allemand, lance sa troisiÃ¨me offensive sur le front occidental en 1918, par une attaque de diversion contre les FranÃ§ais qui tiennent le secteur du Chemin des Dames, sur l'Aisne. "The Kaiser's blitz: The Germans launched a massive spring offensive in 1918 spearheaded by elite storm-troop units in a desperate Did to break the stalemate and win the war. John Terraine | Published in History Today Volume 18 Issue 3 March 1968. Ludendorff had to evacuate most of the Blücher–Yorck salient by 7 August and Hagen was finally cancelled. Ã 9 h 40, deux cent mille Allemands attaquent les lignes anglaises entre Cambrai et Saint-Quentin. La première bataille entre chars de l'histoire eut lieue le 24 avril 1918, lors de la deuxième bataille de Villers-Bretonneux (bataille de la Lys, 24-27 avril 1918, offensive allemande â¦ In particular, in the sector held by the British Fifth Army, which they had recently taken over from French units, the defences were incomplete and there were too few troops to hold the complete position in depth. Once that was achieved, it was hoped that the French would seek armistice terms. As they fell back, many of the isolated "redoubts" were left to be surrounded and overwhelmed by the following German infantry. LibÃ©rÃ©es du front de lâEst par le traitÃ© de Brest-Litovsk les divisions d'infanterie allemandes sont amenÃ©es rapidement par le chemin de fer sur le front occidental. In six months, the strength of the German army had fallen from 5.1 million fighting men to 4.2 million.  Even worse, they lost most of their best-trained men: stormtrooper tactics had them leading the attacks. Nous sommes arrêtés longtemps devant les gares de Belfort et de Nancy, â¦ It was also a line of least resistance as the British and French armies were weak in the sector.  German supply difficulties were made worse by the direction of advance, which crossed the wasteland created during the Battle of the Somme in 1916 and by Operation Alberich, the German retirement to the Hindenburg Line from February to March 1917.. After fruitless attempts to capture Amiens, Ludendorff called off Operation Michael on 5 April.  In terms of morale, the initial German jubilation at the successful opening of the offensive soon turned to disappointment, as it became clear that the attack had not achieved decisive results. Once they began advancing, the Germans struggled to maintain the momentum, partly due to logistical issues. Observations on the German spring offensive, 1918'], This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 00:28. German casualties from "Reichsarchiv 1918", Churchill, "The World Crisis, Vol. On March 21, 1918, near the Somme River in France, the German army launches its first major offensive on the Western Front in two years. Sign Up . After a few days, the German advance began to falter, as the infantry became exhausted and it became increasingly difficult to move artillery and supplies forward to support them. This tactical error meant the infantry had to keep up an exhausting tempo of advance. Au dÃ©clenchement de l'offensive, les 243 divisions de l'armÃ©e impÃ©riale allemande sont dÃ©ployÃ©es ainsi : L'Â« opÃ©ration Michael Â» commenÃ§a le 21 mars 1918 Ã 4 h 40 en Picardie, par un bombardement d'artillerie assez court mais extrÃªmement violent, avec l'aide de 6 200 canons. Physical description 155 p. illus. They had incurreâ¦ Novembre 1914-mars 1918 (R. Porte) ... â L'armée française arrive à maturation matérielle et humaine, tactique et stratégique, en 1918, face à une armée allemande au bord de la rupture. French casualties from "Official Returns to the Chamber, March 29, 1922", Churchill, "The World Crisis, Vol. There were four German offensives, codenamed Michael, Georgette, Gneisenau, and Blücher-Yorck. Infanterie française revenant par Passy-sur-Marne croisant une fanfare de régiment britannique qui se repose le long de la route, 29 mai 1918. Ludendorff prÃ©voit de rÃ©unir les deux saillants pris lors des prÃ©cÃ©dentes attaques dans le secteur d'Amiens, de l'Aisne et de la Marne. The Kaiserschlacht offensives had yielded large territorial gains for the Germans, in First World War terms. The offensive failed to deliver a blow that could save Germany from defeat, which has led some historians[who?] Les Allemands s'étaient rendu compte que leur seule chance de gagner la guerre était d'anéantir les Alliés avant que les États-Unis ne puissent déployer suffisamment de troupes en Europe pour vaincre l'Allemagne. Signature des préliminaires de paix de Buftea entre la Roumanie et les puissances centrales, prélude à la paix de Bucarest, signée deux mois plus tard. Items in Stacks; Le 11 novembre 1918 à 6 heures du matin, les généraux allemands signent l'Armistice avec les Alliés. En 1918, lâarmée alliée aligne 8000 chars et les Allemands â¦ The right wing of Third Army became separated from the retreating Fifth Army, and also retreated to avoid being outflanked. Astore, William J. German success here could choke the British into defeat. Au nord d'Ypres, les Belges tiennent leur front sans dÃ©semparer malgrÃ© plusieurs assauts allemands. Localisation de Carspach sur le front ouest en mars 1918 avec la localisation des offensives allemandes de mars à juillet 1918 (Document M. Landolt, PAIR, dâaprès Y. Desfossés modifié). The French commander-in-chief, General Pétain, sent reinforcements to the sector too slowly in the opinion of the British commander-in-chief, Field Marshal Haig, and the British government, though the historian Elizabeth Greenhalgh disputes this, arguing that Petain sent the six additional divisions quicker than had been arranged with Haig – in 2 days instead of 4 – and arranging for extra divisions several times – 12 divisions on 23 March and 13 on the 25/26 March – before requests came in from Haig.  The Allies reacted by appointing the French General Ferdinand Foch to coordinate all Allied activity in France, and subsequently as commander-in-chief of all Allied forces everywhere. Le moral du soldat de 1918 n'a plus rien à voir avec celui des mutineries de 1917. Et sur son ordre, son artillerie bombarde sÃ©vÃ¨rement les troupes d'assaut ennemies peu avant leur offensive. Les Allemands ont Ã©galement Ã©tÃ© incapables de s'approvisionner en fournitures et matÃ©riel assez rapidement. The ground on this sector of the front would dry out much sooner after the winter and spring rains and would therefore be easier to advance across. L'assaut allemand dÃ©bute par un tir de barrage de 4 600 piÃ¨ces d'artillerie, suivi d'une attaque de sept divisions sur un front de 15 km. The main reason for the choice was tactical expediency. From 0440, the fire-waltz pounded 43 miles of British lines â such a vast stretch the Allies were left uncertain where the assault would occur. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spring_Offensive&oldid=1001718228, Battles of the Western Front (World War I), Battles of World War I involving the United States, Battles of World War I involving the United Kingdom, Battles of World War I involving Australia, Battles of World War I involving New Zealand, Battles of World War I involving Portugal, United States Marine Corps in the 20th century, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2020, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Août 1914. août 1915. août 1916. août 1917. Le manuel numérique max, câest le complément indispensable du manuel papier ou numérique. Bruchmüller's tactics were made possible by the vast numbers of heavy guns—with correspondingly plentiful amounts of ammunition for them—which Germany possessed by 1918. Ce n'est que le 28 mars que Ludendorff songea brusquement aux possibilitÃ©s qui se prÃ©sentaient du cÃ´tÃ© de la Somme, pour effectuer une percÃ©e rapide et dÃ©cisive en direction de Paris, mais il Ã©tait alors trop tard. Cependant le commandement de la IIIe armÃ©e franÃ§aise, le gÃ©nÃ©ral Humbert, averti par des dÃ©serteurs allemands a organisÃ© sa dÃ©fense en consÃ©quence. Le 11, Ã partir de MÃ©ry, le gÃ©nÃ©ral Mangin organise une contre-attaque de trois divisions franÃ§aises et deux divisions amÃ©ricaines. Hazebrouck remained in Allied hands and the Germans occupied a vulnerable salient under fire from three sides. Returning convalescents could supply 70,000–80,000/month but there were only 300,000 recruits available from the next annual class of eighteen-year-olds. Certains des soldats inhumés ont été tués en 1914, d'autres au cours de la Bataille de la Somme, cependant, la grande majorité d'entre eux ont été tués au cours de la Bataille du Kaiser, offensive allemande de mars 1918, ou de l'Offensive des Cent-Jours menée par les Alliés à partir du 8 août 1918 . By the end of the first day, the Germans had made significant advances. The 2nd Division was virtually annihilated, losing more than 7,000 men. Meaux. C'est qu'il considÃ¨re que c'est sur la Somme, oÃ¹ les AmÃ©ricains viennent renforcer les Franco-Anglais, que va se produire, croit-il, l'action dÃ©cisive qui doit obliger l'Ã©tat-major allemand Ã renoncer Ã conquÃ©rir le dernier morceau du territoire belge encore inviolÃ©. Bien que l'offensive ait un objectif limitÃ©, ses premiers succÃ¨s persuadent le haut commandement allemand de poursuivre vers Paris, qui n'est qu'Ã 130 km. The bombardment [hit] targets over an area of 150 square miles, the biggest barrage of the entire war. After a day, the Germans had achieved only minor gains and had suffered heavy casualties. Without French reinforcements, it was feared that the Germans could advance the remaining 15 mi (24 km) to the ports within a week. The lack of a unified high command was partly rectified by the appointment of General Foch to the supreme command, and coordination would improve in later Allied operations. They were being replaced in the front line by fresh British divisions, an operation that was planned to be completed on 9 April, the same day as the Germans attacked the sector. Les autres offensives Ã©taient subordonnÃ©es Ã Michael et ont Ã©tÃ© conÃ§ues pour dÃ©tourner les forces alliÃ©es de l'offensive principale sur la Somme. Les Allemands s'emparent immÃ©diatement du Chemin des Dames et avancent sur l'Aisne, prenant plusieurs ponts intacts. Il est manifeste qu'aprÃ¨s Ypres, l'Allemagne veut utiliser les forces libÃ©rÃ©es par la paix avec la Russie pour un effort suprÃªme plus au sud. De fait, ils n'y arriveront pas. Items must be requested in advance and viewed on-site. The artillery bombardment began at 4.40am on March 21. The commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, issued an "Order of the Day" on 11 April stating, "With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our cause, each one of us must fight on to the end.". 18 cm. The Germans were also fortunate in that the morning of the attack was foggy, allowing the stormtroopers leading the attack to penetrate deep into the British positions undetected. Nonetheless, the German advance (consisting of 21 divisions attacking over a 23 mi (37 km) front) along the Matz River was impressive, resulting in an advance of 9 miles (14 km) despite fierce French and American resistance. Montdidier. The strategic objective remained to split the British and the French and gain victory before American forces could make their presence felt on the battlefield. Even so, about a million German soldiers remained tied up in the east until the end of the war. "The Tragic Pursuit of Total Victory. The rear zone existed as outline markings only, and the battle zone consisted of battalion "redoubts" which were not mutually supporting (allowing stormtroopers to penetrate between them). Because of this, Ludendorff continually exhausted his forces by attacking strongly entrenched British units. After two days the Fifth Army was in full retreat. Depuis la commune d'Hangest-en-Santerre, la 163e division d'infanterie dirigÃ©e par le gÃ©nÃ©ral Debeney dÃ©fendait Moreuil.  Ludendorff sought to extend Blücher-Yorck westward with Operation Gneisenau, intending to draw yet more Allied reserves south, widen the German salient and link with the German salient at Amiens. The success of Operation Michael led German infantry to advance too far from its supply bases and railheads. Cependant, le barrage ne permet pas d'empÃªcher les troupes allemandes d'avancer de 8 km le premier jour de leur attaque, connu sous le nom de code opÃ©ration Gneisenau. 2", p.963.  Notwithstanding the effectiveness of the stormtroopers, the following German infantry often made attacks in large traditional waves and suffered heavy casualties.. The German High Command predicted they would need 200,000 men per month to make good the losses suffered. The advance was slowed by supply shortages, which gave Allied commanders more time to reinforce the threatened areas and to slow the advance still more. Elle fut arrÃªtÃ©e par les renforts de l'armÃ©e franÃ§aise, avec la 56e division d'infanterie de rÃ©serve commandÃ©e par le gÃ©nÃ©ral Demetz (avec notamment ses 4 bataillons d'Ã©lite dont le 65e bataillon de chasseurs Ã pied Ã Montdidier), avec la 133e division d'infanterie, la 4e division de cavalerie dirigÃ©s par le gÃ©nÃ©ral MesplÃ©, la 22e division d'infanterie et la 62e division d'infanterie du gÃ©nÃ©ral Robillot. This change had been made after experience of the successful German use of defence in depth during 1917. ['Strategy of defeat. German troop losses were 239,000 men, many of them specialist shocktroops (Stoßtruppen) who were irreplaceable. Plusieurs opérations allemandes fureâ¦ En fin de journÃ©e, les Allemands ont avancÃ© d'une quinzaine de kilomÃ¨tres. The first advance, Operation Michael, began on March 21, 1918. They also lost 1,300 artillery pieces and 200 tanks. Avant que les dÃ©fenseurs britanniques Ã©tourdis ne puissent rÃ©agir, des Ã©quipes spÃ©ciales de troupes d'assaut allemandes sortirent du brouillard et de la fumÃ©e pour attaquer ou contourner les points stratÃ©giques des lignes. As with Michael, losses were roughly equal, approximately 110,000 men wounded or killed, each. Betrachtungen Zur Deutschen Frühjahrsoffensive 1918." Février 1918 - Mars 1918 - Avril 1918. However, the German offensive had stalled because of logistical problems and exposed flanks. L'objectif de leur offensive, du nom de code BlÃ¼cher-Yorck, est de frapper la 6e armÃ©e franÃ§aise du gÃ©nÃ©ral DuchÃªne qui regroupe douze divisions dont trois britanniques. Mais, à partir de juillet, les forces de lâEntente lancent leur contre-offensive. Comment la reprise de la guerre de mouvement mène-t-elle à la fin du conflit ? ", Terraine, John. Despite French and British resistance on the flanks, German troops advanced to the Marne River and Paris seemed a realistic objective. The fast-moving stormtrooper units could not carry enough food and ammunition to sustain themselves for long, and the army could not move in supplies and reinforcements fast enough to assist them. Plusieurs opÃ©rations allemandes furent mises au point : Michael, Georgette, Gneisenau et BlÃ¼cher-Yorck. Purchase. The French had been warned of this attack (the Battle of Matz (French: Bataille du Matz)) by information from German prisoners, and their defence in depth reduced the impact of the artillery bombardment on 9 June. By the end of the day, the few British divisions in reserve were hard-pressed to hold a line along the River Lys. Counterattacks by British, French and Anzac forces slowed and stopped the German advance.
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